European nuclear energy system

What to say about contemporary situation in the European nuclear energy system? It is a previous generation system. We highly appreciate efforts of scientists and engineers who created it, especially the French scientists. It was a wonderful thing at that time. However, now it is a problem of transition to the next generation system. It is an agonizing process due to the inertial structure of nuclear energy system. It is hard for it to be reorganized because technological and economic expenditures are tremendous. However, this transition is an acute necessity.

Nature has left us with only one option for a global energy system, i.e. one based on fission of heavy nucleus: uranium, plutonium and thorium. Fission of one nucleus releases about 200 million electron-volts of energy. This is more than sufficient to clean and reprocess all the waste and to have huge amount of energy left for consumption.

At the same time burning one molecule of fossil fuel gives only 5-6 electron-volts. Considering the necessity to clean its waste the energy balance is negative, i.e. after cleaning there will be nothing left for consumption. Other types of power production, like hydroelectric, solar, wind, bio-energy, tide power, etc., have negative energy balance as well.

It is important that uranium and thorium resources will last for millions of years, given the current rate of energy consumption.

Nuclear energy unlike fossil fuel can be produced in a tightly enclosed environment with elements that are not involved in the Earth’s natural biological cycles.

However, today’s nuclear power technologies fall short of satisfying the criteria of an energy system based on holistic principles. They were developed at the time of superpower’s confrontation, when the order of the day was to produce weapon-grade materials rather than to generate power.

Today’s nuclear power’s major drawback is insufficient safety and large amount of radioactive waste.

Safety

High pressure in the modern reactor core and chemical volatility of coolant pose a fundamental threat to the environment, particularly in critical situations.

Safety of a next-generation reactors is provided not by control systems but by inherent properties of the reactors. Any internal causes of serious accidents are excluded by negative reactivity feedback inside the core, the low-pressure in a cooling system, a chemically inert coolant. As a result reactor becomes a self-protected system. Today, a reactor cooled by lead alloys is inherently safe and, unlike all other existing reactors, satisfies the safety requirements.

The physical properties of the coolant and the reactor design rule out any contamination of the environment under any external impact, including fire, explosion, airplane crash, flooding, earthquake, human error, etc. In any emergency situation the chain reaction stops and the reactor protects itself from destruction by turning into an impenetrable lead monolith.

The fuel used in these reactors can not be used for military purposes. They can be easily transported and widely distributed. They can form a net of connected units that work autonomously without fuel reloading for about 10 years. When their life cycle ends, they are returned to a reprocessing facility to be replaced by fresh ones, just like commonly used electric cells.

No-waste

Fuel production, generation and distribution of power, utilization and recycling of waste should not cause the accumulation of radioactive waste. For that it is necessary to have a closed fuel cycle. It means that used fuel should be repeatedly returned into the energy cycle for reuse until it is completely utilized. For this purpose, the power system envisages a specialized reprocessing facility where various technologies capable of dealing with radioactive waste are concentrated.

While operation of these Cells is a simple procedure, the management of nuclear materials in the reprocessing facility requires high quality professionals with exceptional human characteristics and skills.

Some European countries (France, Russia, Czech Republic, etc.) have acquired considerable hands-on experience in handling nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at specialized facilities. However, it is obvious that today no country has the ability by itself to utilize nuclear waste according to the requirements of the closed fuel cycle. The only solution is to unite experiences, technical capacities, resources, people, etc. in a joint European program and to free individual countries from carrying this unbearable for them task on their own.

One facility for reprocessing and transmutation will be sufficient to utilize radioactive waste from all Europe. It should be located in a restricted remote area (e.g., on an island Novaya Zemlya in Russia) which would have a recognized international status and be placed under strict control of an international organization. Such organization will be able to guarantee safety and non-proliferation. It will be transparent for monitoring by any state, international environmental organizations, etc.

In 1996 we organized an international conference discussing strategy for developing world energy system. Experts from different countries came to an undeniable conclusion that there are all necessary scientific and technological achievements for creating safe and waste-free world wide energy system. However, neither the world nor Europe is capable to realize this task due to the egotism of national, professional, etc. interests. Its already obvious and the coming events will demonstrate it once again that it is necessary to create United Europe from Atlantic Ocean to the Ural mountains as integrated system where the issue of  energy can be resolved along with many other questions.

read more…

This is a map of European Nuclear Power Plants. The red rectangles represent the NPPs, with areas, proportional to the total MWe power of each one. The green rectangles represent the major European towns.

<TABLE CELLSPACING=0 BORDER=0 CELLPADDING=7 WIDTH=730>
<TR><TD WIDTH=”27%” VALIGN=”top”>
<P ALIGN=”center”><IMG height=116 src=”2.jpg” width=186 alt=”image 11 kb”></P></TD>
<TD WIDTH=”73%” VALIGN=”top”>
<B><FONT FACE=”Times New Roman” SIZE=5>
<P align=center>Technological bases for<br> ecological settlements on deserted lands
</P>
</B></FONT><FONT FACE=”Times New Roman”>
<P align=center>The brief description of the
project</P>  </FONT></TD>
</TR>
</TABLE><FONT FACE=”Times New Roman”><FONT face=Arial ><FONT color=#000099>
<P><FONT face=”Times New Roman” color=#000000>The most global problems, decision
of which is necessary for further man’s existence on the Earth, are the general
shortage, gradual destruction and growing pollution of fresh water sources,
degradation of soil owing to a drought and desertification, pollution of an
environment etc. In this connection the conception of an autonomous settlement
located in deserted lands with saline water sources has been developed. Vital
capacity of this settlement is based on a complex of new technologies combining
into one and allowing:</P>
<UL>
<LI>desalination of sea or underground saline waters;</LI>
<LI>extraction of valuable chemical substances;</LI>
<LI>creation of water-retaining soil layer;</LI>
<LI>increasing of fertility of soil and efficiency of land tenure;</LI>
<LI>cleaning shoaling seawater.</FONT></LI></UL>
<P><FONT face=”Times New Roman” color=#000000>A distinctive feature of this
complex is wastelessness, efficiency and ability of working in an autonomous
mode. </FONT></P><FONT face=Arial></FONT>   </FONT>
<P><FONT color=#000099><STRONG>Reprocessing of salty
waters</STRONG></FONT></P></FONT><FONT
face=Arial></FONT>
<P><FONT color=#000099>A basis of this technology is
<a href=”http://www.geokhi.ru/exhibition/expo2000/4r.htm”>the original method</a> of
non-reagent water softening by means of an installation for complex
desalination. This installation consists of three parts: a unit of preliminary
preparation, a desalter and a unit for reprocessing brines.</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#000099>A unit of preliminary preparation is intended for
preliminary filtrate and make soft (decalcify) of seawater without additional
reagents. A deep degree of softening allows increase productivity of
desalination and terms of operation of equipment on 20-30%. The
“self-sustaining” process of softening allows creating stationary plants or
mobile units without regeneration equipment and attendants.</FONT><FONT
size=4><FONT color=#000099> </FONT></P>
</FONT></FONT>
<P ALIGN=”center”><TABLE CELLSPACING=0 BORDER=0 CELLPADDING=7 WIDTH=576>
<TR><TD WIDTH=”50%” VALIGN=”top”><FONT face=Arial
color=#000099>
<P><IMG height=222 src=”techtr.gif” width=142 alt=”diagram of traditional desalter 13 kb”></P></FONT>
<P><FONT color=#000099>Comparison of traditional (left) and new (right)
technologies of desalination</FONT></P></TD>
<TD WIDTH=”50%” VALIGN=”top”><FONT face=Arial
color=#000099>
<P><IMG height=276 src=”techne.gif” width=153 alt=”diagram of new desalter 18 kb”></P></FONT></TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
</P>

<P ALIGN=”left”><FONT FACE=”Times New Roman”><FONT size=3><FONT color=#000099>A desalter represents a distiller (or a membrane device)
working from an independent source of energy. Distinctive feature of this unit
is deep desalination of sea water (up to 80 %) and getting brines of high
concentration, that allows to reduce their volume in 3-5 times and to receive
pure commercial salt-products (see table).</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#000099>An unit for reprocessing brines represents a system of
flowing evaporative pools or vacuum evaporators, which allow to educe dry rests
of sodium chloride, magnesia, sodium sulphate and other salts of valuable
chemical elements.</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#000099>This technology
differs from traditional desalter by more high efficiency
(in 3 times) and absence of waste-brines, which usually merge in coastal water
area, suffering irreplaceable losses for sea ecology.</FONT></P></FONT><FONT
face=Arial></FONT><B><FONT face=Arial size=3>
<P><FONT color=#660000>Correction of structure and mineral composition of
soil</FONT></P></B></FONT><FONT face=Arial></FONT><FONT size=3>
<P><FONT color=#660000>Zeolites are used for softening seawater. These minerals
are widely widespread in nature and have properties to keep moisture, inorganic
and organic compounds. Zeolites brought in small quantity (20 % and more) in
sandy ground allow ensure water-holding and necessary physical structure of
soil.</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#660000>They can be enriched by chemical compounds received as a
result of desalination and used for correction of mineral composition of
exhausted and poor soils. It allows to close chemical cycles on potassium,
phosphorus and microelements. Nitrogen and carbon can be extracted from
household, agricultural and some other waste and involved into agricultural
cycles by means of effective microorganisms (EM).</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#660000>These microorganisms have property to actively fix
nitrogen and carbon, accumulating it and giving back
soil.</FONT></P></FONT><FONT face=Arial></FONT><FONT face=Arial size=3>
<P>&nbsp;</P><B>
<P><FONT color=#006600>EM – effective microorganisms</FONT></P></B></FONT><FONT
face=Arial></FONT><FONT size=3>
<P><FONT color=#006600>A fertility of soil is defined not only by structural and
mineral composition but “alive substance”, containing in it and representing
billions microorganisms, warms, insects etc. These microorganisms are in
symbiosis; i.e. vital products of one type of bacteria are necessary for vital
functioning of other type of bacteria. Plants and microorganisms are in
symbiosis also, and substances excreted by bacteria are acquired by plants in
tens time better than mineral fertilisers widely used in the world.</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#006600>The preparations used in EM-technology, represent the
mixed culture of bacteria, which is applied as subculture (inoculum) to increase
microbe variety of soil. EM-culture do not contain the generically changed
microorganisms, are made of the mixed cultures, which are available in natural
environment all over the world.</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#006600>The majority of microorganisms living in soil are capable
to adapt oneself to a leading group of bacteria. Therefore bacteria of EM-group
brought into soil “infect” with their properties other groups of microorganisms,
allowing to restore and even to build up a fertile layer for 2-3
years.</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#006600>Soils sated by effective microorganisms are extremely
fertile. Plants evolved on such soil grow much faster, are free from weeds and
diseases.</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#006600>Also the EM-technology is successfully applied to
clearing waste sewer waters and processing organic household and industrial
waste.</FONT></P></FONT><FONT face=Arial color=#009900 size=3><B>
<P>Agriculture applying EM</P></B></FONT><FONT face=Arial></FONT><FONT size=3>
<P><FONT color=#009900>If the problems of water holding, mineral and physical
structure are solved all land treatments are reduced to preparation of ground,
sowing of seeds and harvest. </FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#009900>Preparation of ground is made by boardless way for
moisture deduction and preservation of bacteria distribution structure on all
depth of a soil. The sowing and entering of EM-fertilisers is made
simultaneously, locally; i.e. the zone of entering of fertilisers coincides with
a place of landing of plants. Plants sow not traditionally, when distances
between them are confused in rows but in such a way as to ensure identical
distances between neighbour plants determined for each culture separately. Such
method allows essentially to lower fertiliser and seed expenditure and to create
most favourable conditions for vegetation of cultural plants. At a transition on
a stationary regime, i.e. after restoration of fertility, the basic rule is
reduced to the formula – it is necessary to bring in soil as much organic
substances as crop (in a dry kind) was taken from it.</FONT></P>
<P><FONT color=#009900>The received experience has shown that such complex of
measures allows to increase existing parameters of productivity in some times at
preservation of ecological cleanliness and genetic nature, to achieve fantastic
crops of ancient Shumer and even to surpass them.</FONT></P></FONT><FONT
face=Arial></FONT><B><FONT face=Arial size=3>
<P><FONT color=#0000ff>Sea technologies</FONT></P></B></FONT><FONT
face=Arial></FONT><FONT color=#0000ff size=3>
<P>One of major problems of coastal settlements is clearing of water areas. The
Institute of Biology of Southern Seas (IBSS, Sevastopol) have developed and
applied technologies for clearing of seawaters. Mollusca (mussel, oysters)
absorb polluting substances, and after that they can be used as food additives
on poultry farms or as organic fertilisers. EM-technology allows in short terms
(from 14 days about 2 months) to produce ecologically clean organic fertilisers
to grow a fertile soil layer.</P></FONT><FONT face=Arial></FONT><B><FONT
face=Arial size=3>
<P><FONT color=#990000>Thus use of such technological complex
allows:</FONT></P></B></FONT><FONT face=Arial>
<UL></FONT><FONT size=3>
<LI><FONT color=#990000>produce fresh water for household and agricultural
needs,</FONT>
<LI><FONT color=#990000>produce pure chemical substances for an external
market,</FONT>
<LI><FONT color=#990000>produce ecologically clean agricultural products for
internal usage and export,</FONT>
<LI><FONT color=#990000>produce ecologically clean production of sea
farms,</FONT>
<LI><FONT color=#990000>gradually increase a fertile of deserted and marginal
lands, for expansion of agricultural grounds and forest shelter
belts,</FONT>
<LI><FONT color=#990000>achieve cleanliness of water area of coastal
settlements.</FONT></LI></UL></FONT></FONT>
</td></tr></table>

Advertisements

One thought on “European nuclear energy system

  1. Pingback: Περί «πυθαγορείων» νέες καταγγελίες. | Φιλονόη καὶ Φίλοι...

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s